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Medication-free Interventions for Depression

Medication-free Interventions for Depression

 

Medication-free Interventions for Depression

These treatments have been proven to be effective for mood disorders and are backed by scientific research:

 

 

1. Exercise

The last thing a depressed person wants to do is exercise but it is well known that regular physical activity elevates the mood and provides a sense of well being. This is done in part by increasing certain brain neurotransmitters and in part by modulating stress response.

 

 

 

 

2. Bright Light Therapy (BLT)

This refers to the use of bright light to treat symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance is a core symptom of depression and of other mood disorders. BLT helps regulate the circadian rhythm, It triggers and increases the amplitude of melatonin production as well as higher serotonin levels. Sleep regulation helps the depressed person start to feel better.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Behavioral activation Therapy (BAT)

This behavioral component of CBT has been found to be a “stand alone” treatment for depression and it is highly effective.It guides the person to understand that their emotions are the result of their actions. It helps the depressed person to identify activities that add meaning to their life, like reading, listening to music, volunteering, visiting with friends and family, etc. The person is told to do these things without waiting for their mood to get better.

 

 

 

 

6. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

During TMS treatment a large magnetic coil is held against the scalp on the Left Prefrontal Region of the brain. This area is near what is thought to be the “mood center”. Without pain, magnetic pulsations pass through the skull to stimulate the nerve cells. TMS helps normalize the activity of brain circuits involved in depression. The treatment is not invasive and there is no need for an anesthetic. In October, 2008 the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the first TMS device for the treatment of Major Depression

 

 

 

3.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

This is a type of “talk” therapy but also a “do” therapy relying in the delegation of “tasks” to the patient. It focuses on changing negative thought patterns, on learning to redefine problems and on finding new ways to approach them

 

 

 

 

5. Mindfulness Training

People are told to pay attention in a particular way: to do it on purpose, in the present moment, and without judging. They are thought to bring their mind to mundane objects or activities in everyday life. You practice mindfulness by eating mindfully, walking mindfully, “observing” your breathing, connecting with your senses, resting between actions, listening attentively with mind and heart and “getting lost” in doing what you love.

 

Glutamate Levels May Predict Outcomes of Patients at Risk of Psychosis

Glutamate Levels May Predict Outcomes of Patients at Risk of Psychosis

Changes in hippocampal function are believed to play a role in the onset of psychosis. A study published today in JAMA Psychiatry suggests that the concentration of the neurotransmitter glutamate and several other metabolites in the hippocampus may offer clues about patients who are most likely to transition to psychosis.

The findings suggest that measuring hippocampal metabolites could help psychiatrists better predict outcomes in patients at risk of developing psychosis.

For the study, Matthijs G. Bossong, Ph.D., of the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands and colleagues used an imaging technique known as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) to measure baseline levels of glutamate and several other metabolites in 86 individuals at high risk for psychosis and 30 healthy controls. On the day of the scanning, the researchers used several scales to assess the participants’ functioning as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression. About 18.5 months later, the researchers met face to face with 57 of the 86 participants in the high-risk group to assess whether the patients had transitioned to psychosis; they also assessed the overall functioning in this group.

 

Psychosis - Clinical depression Fresno

In total, 12 people in the clinical high-risk group experienced a first episode of psychosis; 19 showed “good overall functioning” (Global Assessment of Function, or GAF, scale equal to or greater than 65), whereas 38 of the 57 had “poor functional outcome” (GAF less than 65), Bossong and colleagues reported. The group of patients who transitioned to psychosis were found to have had significantly higher hippocampal glutamate levels at the start of the study than those patients who did not transition. These patients also had significantly higher levels of the metabolites myo-inositol and creatine than those who did not develop psychosis. Moreover, patients with higher levels of hippocampal glutamate at baseline were found to have lower levels of overall functioning at follow-up, the authors reported.

“The findings indicate that adverse clinical outcomes in individuals at high risk for psychosis may be associated with an increase in baseline hippocampal glutamate levels, as well as an increase in myo-inositol and creatine levels,” the authors wrote.

“Pharmacological treatments that engage glutamatergic targets have been generally unsuccessful for treatment of psychotic, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia,” Juan R. Bustillo, M.D., of the University of Mexico and colleagues wrote in an accompanying editorial. “However, because schizophrenia is highly heritable and glutamatergic-associated genes are among the most involved, in vivo glutamate measurements may still assist the delineation of subgroups of patients with vulnerable disease stages.”

 

Source: American Psychiatric Association